Encouraging Appropriate Behavior - Vanderbilt … Appropriate Behavior Level C • Case 1 Background Student: Zach; Patrick Age: 10.10; 11.4 Grade: 5th grade, 2nd semester; 5th grade, - [PDF Document] (2024)

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Encouraging Appropriate Behavior


Christina M. Curran PhDCentral Washington University

The contents of this case study were developed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, # H325F010003. However, those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the U.S. Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsem*nt by the Federal Government. Project Officers, Helen Thornton and Anne Smith.

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IRIS@VU • Modules and Materials DevelopmentNaomi C. Tyler, PhD • Co-DirectorVanderbilt UniversityPhone: (615) 343-5610 or (800) 831-6134Fax: (615) 343-5611Email: [emailprotected]

Encouraging Appropriate Behavior

Contents: PageLicensure and Content Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii

Case Study Level A, Case 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Case Study Level A, Case 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Case Study Level B, Case 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Case Study Level B, Case 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Case Study Level C, Case 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

STAR Sheet: Specific Praise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

STAR Sheet: Criterion-Specific Rewards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

STAR Sheet: Choice Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

STAR Sheet: Effective Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

STAR Sheet: Contingent Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

STAR Sheet: Group Contingency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Instructor’s Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

To cite this Case Study Unit:

Curran, C., & the IRIS Center. (2003). Encouraging appropriate behavior. Retrieved from http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/wp-content/uploads/pdf_case_studies/ics_encappbeh.pdf


nTable of ContentsTable of Contents

For an Instructor’s Guide to this case study, please email your full name, title, and institutional affiliation to the IRIS Center at [emailprotected].

iihttp://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu na) ii


Licensure and Content StandardsThis IRIS Case Study aligns with the following licensure and program standards and topic areas.

Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP)CAEP standards for the accreditation of educators are designed to improve the quality and effectiveness not only of new instructional practitioners but also the evidence-base used to assess those qualities in the classroom.

• Standard 1: Content and Pedagogical Knowledge

Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)CEC standards encompass a wide range of ethics, standards, and practices created to help guide those who have taken on the crucial role of educating students with disabilities.

• Standard 2: Learning Environments

Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC)InTASC Model Core Teaching Standards are designed to help teachers of all grade levels and content areas to pre-pare their students either for college or for employment following graduation.

• Standard 3: Learning Environments

National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE)NCATE standards are intended to serve as professional guidelines for educators. They also overview the “organiza-tional structures, policies, and procedures” necessary to support them

• Standard 1: Candidate Knowledge, Skills, and Professional Dispositions

The Division for Early Childhood Recommended Practices (DEC)The DEC Recommended Practices are designed to help improve the learning outcomes of young children (birth through age five) who have or who are at-risk for developmental delays or disabilities.

• Topic 5: Instruction

Encouraging Appropriate Behavior


Encouraging Appropriate BehaviorLevel A • Case 1

BackgroundStudent: Sam

Age: 14.2

Grade: 8th

ScenarioSam is an eighth grader who is not finishing his work due to his off-task behaviors. According to his records, this has been an ongoing problem since third grade. His grades have become progressively worse this year. His academic grade in his social studies class (and in most of his other classes) is at 65 percent because assignments are rarely completed or are done haphazardly. When Sam does start an assignment, he often rushes through it, making a number of errors and overlooking information. His teacher reports the following types of off-task behaviors: reading books and magazines, drawing and doodling, daydreaming, and talking to friends and neighbors. These behaviors occur most often during independent work times and rarely during large group or whole class activities. Having reviewed Sam’s completed assignments and his class participation in group activities, Sam’s social studies teacher believes he is capable of doing grade-level work and has decided that Sam will achieve the following goals within six weeks:

• Increase the number of independent assignments completed • Earn 80 percent or higher on all completed assignments

Possible Strategies• Specific Praise• Criterion-Specific Rewards• Choice-Making

! Assignment1. Read the STAR Sheets on the possible strategies listed above.2. Write a summary of each strategy, including its purpose.3. Describe why each strategy might be used to help Sam meet one or more of his goals.


sCase Study


Encouraging Appropriate BehaviorLevel A • Case 2

BackgroundStudent: Heather

Age: 8.1

Grade: 3rd

ScenarioHeather is a third grader in Ms. Reyes’ classroom of 24 students. Heather enjoys school and often arrives early so she can spend time on the playground with her friends. Ms. Reyes, however, is concerned because Heather is disrupting the class. She reports that Heather calls out answers during lessons, speaks over others during class discussion, and talks to neighbors during group and independent work. For 25 minutes each day, Heather and two peers receive resource room support in math. Heather’s resource room teacher has not noticed any of these behaviors. Ms. Reyes decides to set these goals for Heather for the next nine weeks:

• Raise her hand and wait to be called before speaking• Decrease interruptions and wait for others to finish before adding to discussions• Complete independent work quietly

Possible Strategies• Effective Rules• Contingent Instructions• Group Contingency

! Assignment1. Read the STAR Sheets on the possible strategies listed above.2. Write a summary of each strategy, including its purpose.3. Describe why each strategy might be used to help Heather meet one or more of her goals.


sCase Study


Encouraging Appropriate BehaviorLevel B • Case 1

BackgroundStudent: Doug

Age: 7.9

Grade: 2nd Grade, 2nd Semester

ScenarioDoug loves science and hands-on activities. He is interested in dinosaurs and robots, and enjoys using the computer to play games. Doug has shared that he likes putting together “Lego” sets and has brought several in to the classroom to share. Doug, however, is not performing well at school. His teacher and parents are concerned. He is failing grade-level requirements in reading and math, even though he has tested at grade level in these areas. Doug does have an identified learning disability and receives resource room assistance in written expression.

Doug gets easily frustrated when he has to copy and write assignments in any subject. He does have a computer available to use in the classroom as needed. His second grade teacher, Mr. McGrady, believes Doug is capable of doing the work required in class. Mr. McGrady has noted that Doug participates in class discussions and hands-on activities; however, he avoids and rarely starts assignments by himself. Mr. McGrady reports that while other students begin assignments, Doug can be found fiddling with “Lego gadgets” and drawing robots. Getting Doug started on most independent activities is like pulling teeth. Based on this information, Mr. McGrady has selected these goals for Doug to achieve within the next three months:

• Begin independent work assignments promptly• Increase the number of completed assignments

Possible Strategies• Specific Praise• Criterion Specific Rewards• Choice-Making• Effective Rules• Contingent Instructions• Group Contingency

! Assignment1. Read the STAR Sheets on the possible strategies listed above.2. Select one strategy you feel would best address Doug’s goals.3. State why you selected this strategy to address the goals.4. Describe how you would implement this strategy in your classroom and any cautions for its use.


sCase Study


Encouraging Appropriate Behavior Level B • Case 2

BackgroundStudent: Ellie

Age: 14

Grade: 9th grade, 1st semester

ScenarioEllie is a ninth grader who has just moved to the community from another city. She is quiet and withdrawn and doesn’t appear to have made many new friends. She often sits alone in the back of the classroom and doesn’t volunteer responses, offer ideas, or engage in class discussions. While she does most, if not all, of the independent work required of her, she does not actively participate in any partner or cooperative activities. She avoids group contact by reading or drawing quietly or asking to be excused to go to the restroom, locker, or office. From all the information the teachers have gathered and their observations, Ellie appears to be able to read and write on grade level.

Mr. Salinas, Ellie’s English teacher, becomes concerned when Ellie’s failure to participate in group activities begins to cause some resentment among her peers. Some students say they don’t want to be placed in a group with Ellie because “She won’t help out and it just drags us down. It’s like she doesn’t even know we’re there.” This problem is also beginning to affect Ellie’s grade in English class because several of the semester competencies and assignments require peer and group interaction. There are upcoming small group literature discussion activities and peer editing and writing support groups. Mr. Salinas believes Ellie is capable of the work and sets the following goals for her to achieve by the end of the semester:

• Increase her participation in class discussions and conversations• Interact effectively within literature discussion activities and peer editing or writing groups

Possible Strategies• Specific Praise• Criterion Specific Rewards• Choice-Making• Effective Rules• Contingent Instructions• Group Contingency

! Assignment1. Review each of the STAR sheets on the possible strategies listed above.2. Select one strategy that you feel would best address Ellie’s goals.3. State why you selected this strategy to address the goals.4. Describe how you would implement this strategy in your classroom and any cautions for its use.


sCase Study


Encouraging Appropriate BehaviorLevel C • Case 1

BackgroundStudent: Zach; Patrick

Age: 10.10; 11.4

Grade: 5th grade, 2nd semester; 5th grade, 2nd semester

ScenarioPatrick and Zach are fifth graders in Mrs. Anderson’s class of 25 students. The class has 13 boys and 12 girls. Three students in the class have identified disabilities and receive resource room support. Zach is one of these students and has a specific learning disability in reading. He receives 30 minutes of resource room support daily to address reading goals. Zach likes math. He especially enjoyed the geometry unit the class just completed. He is typically a quiet worker during independent work time. It’s not unusual for Zach to come in during recesses or stay after school to feed the class guinea pig.

Patrick, another student, likes participating in classroom skits and plays. He enjoys telling funny stories and being in the limelight. Patrick is an average student academically. He participates in community sports and especially likes softball. Other students say he “doesn’t stop talking.”

Mrs. Anderson is about ready to pull her hair out because of the growing number of disruptions that have been occurring in the classroom. Patrick and Zach seem to be magnets for these disruptions. Mrs. Anderson has observed that Patrick and Zach appear to be “at each other” constantly. Not only do they get off task at these times but the rest of the class is also drawn into spectator sport. Unfortunately, during these disruptions, little classroom work or instruction gets done. Mrs. Anderson has noted the following behaviors of concern:

Zach PatrickResponds angrily to teasing by yelling back and sometimes even crying

Teases Zach (and, at times, other students) by name calling, making hurtful comments, etc.

Argues with Patrick Calls out during class or gives unrelated or inappropriate informa-tion during class discussion when called on

Pushes Patrick if he doesn’t re-spond to his requests or comments

Argues with Zach (or other stu-dents) when asked to stop teasing or halt other undesired behavior

! Assignment1. Create a priority list of two critical goals each for Patrick and Zach. 2. Identify two or three strategies you could use to address the goals you listed.3. Provide a rationale of why you selected these strategies.4. Choose one strategy to implement immediately and justify your selection and discuss what

information you used to support this.5. Describe how you would implement this strategy if you were the classroom teacher, and any

possible cautions or considerations that you should be aware of.


sCase Study


H What a STAR Sheet is…A STAR (STrategies And Resources) Sheet provides you with a description of a well-researched strategy that can help you solve the case studies in this unit.

Encouraging Appropriate BehaviorSpecific Praise

What a STAR Sheet is…A STAR (STrategies And Resources) Sheet provides you with a description of a well-researched strategy that can help you solve the case studies in this unit.

What It Is…Specific praise includes verbal or written statements to a student that recognize a desired or correct behavior. Praise can function as a tool for instruction and for increasing social and academic behaviors. To be effective, the student must view the attention provided through praise as pleasurable or motivational.

What the Research and Resources Say…• Praise can be used to build positive relationships with students and assist in creating a supportive classroom

environment (Brophy, 1998; Emmer, Evertson, & Worsham, 2003; Shores, Gunter, & Jack, 1993).• Powerful, appropriate praise is: nonjudgmental; specific and descriptive; contingent and immediate; and

sincere (Brophy, 1998; Duncan, Kemple & Smith, 200; Weinstein, 2003).• A variety of types of praise should be used to avoid overuse and satiation (Brophy, 1998). In some cases

praise should be used in conjunction with other types of reinforcements or rewards (Duncan et al., 2000; Kerr & Nelson, 2002).

• All students need to experience success. Ensure that each student receives some form of sincere and accurate praise or recognition (Evertson, Emmer, & Worsham., 2003).

• Some students, particularly adolescents, do not find public praise reinforcing or pleasant (Emmer et al., 2003; Maag, 2001; Weinstein, 2003).

• Teachers must adjust their use of praise and how it is delivered for individual students. Some students have long histories of obtaining attention through misbehavior rather than appropriate conduct. For these students, combining praise with other forms of reinforcement and behavior strategies may be needed. (Piaz-za et al., 1999).

• The effectiveness of the praise depends on the “richness” of the reinforcement currently available in the student’s enviroment (Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer, 1991).

Tips for Implementation… • Deliver Effective Praise Statements

a. Be nonjudgmental. Praise the student’s accomplishment or behavior, not his or her achievement when compared with that of others.

Example: “Doug, you really did a great job of being prepared for class today by bringing your pencils and notebook.”

Nonexample: “Doug, I’m glad you brought your supplies today like everyone else.”




• Be specific and include detail. a. Avoid global positive statements.

Example: “Wow, Keesha! You used several vivid terms in your paragraph to describe the story setting. Your use of adjectives has really increased.”

Nonexample. “Wow, Keesha! Great writing today!”

• Be sincere and credible. a. Use statements that underscore the student’s actual efforts and accomplishments. Make sure your

voice and body language match the content of your message.

Example: “Hector, you set up the multiplication problem correctly, placing all numbers in the appropriate columns. You are ready now to work on the next part of the problem.”

Nonexample: “Hector, you really did a great job solving your multiplication problems today.”

• Deliver immediate praise in close proximity to the student for whom the praise is intended. Move around the classroom frequently so you can be prepared to “catch them being good.”

• Utilize a variety of verbal and written praise. • Offer praise to several students at the same time. Or provide praise privately to avoid the embarrassment

some students feel when being singled out in public.• Evaluate and Adjust Praise

a. Take time to evaluate whether your praise is working. Ask yourself: ▪ Is the praise effective? Do the students seem to like the attention? ▪ Do they maintain or improve the praised behavior? ▪ Do I offer each student some form of praise every day? ▪ Do I maintain a positive balance of positive and negative statements in my classroom? ▪ Do I include variety in my use of praise?

b. Revise the type, delivery, or frequency of praise as needed based upon individual student responses or needs.

c. Use frequent praise when new behavior and skills are taught. As the skill is mastered, this frequency should be gradually reduced to a more intermittent schedule.

Keep in Mind…• Effective praise can be used to create a positive classroom atmosphere and enhance relationships with

students. When it is used effectively it may prevent certain types of behavior.• Effective praise should be individualized for students in its content and delivery.• Teachers must ensure that positive exchanges and statements occur more frequently than reprimands in their

interactions with students.



Resources…Brophy, J. (1998). Motivating students to learn. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.

Duncan, T. K., Kemple, K. M., & Smith, T. M. (2000). Reinforcement in developmentally appropriate early childhood classrooms. Childhood Education, 76, 194–203.

Emmer, E. T., Evertson, C. M., & Worsham, M. E. (2003). Classroom management for secondary teachers (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Evertson, C. M., Emmer, E. T., & Worsham, M. E. (2003). Classroom management for elementary teachers (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Kerr, M. M., & Nelson, C. M. (2002). Strategies for addressing behavior problems in the classroom

(4th ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill Prentice Hall.

Maag, J. W. (2001). Rewarded by punishment: Reflections on the disuse of positive reinforcement in schools. Exceptional Children, 67, 173–186.

Piazza, C. C., Bowman, L. G., Contruci, S. A., Delia, M. D., Adelinis, J. D., & Goh, H. L. (1999). An evaluation of the properties of attention and reinforcement for destructive and appropriate behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, 434–449.

Shores, R. E., Gunter, P. L., & Jack, S. L. (1993). Classroom management strategies: Are they setting events for coercion. Behavioral Disorders, 18, 92–102.

Sulzer-Azaroff, B., & Mayer, G. R. (1991). Behavior analysis for lasting change (2nd ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace.

Weinstein, C. S. (2003). Secondary classroom management: Lessons from research and practice (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.



Encouraging Appropriate BehaviorCriterion-Specific Rewards

What a STAR Sheet is…A STAR (STrategies And Resources) Sheet provides you with a description of a well-researched strategy that can help you solve the case studies in this unit.

What It Is…Criterion-specific rewards can be used as part of a proactive intervention for managing classroom behavior. Students may earn criterion-specific rewards such as activities, privileges, and tangible incentives after the occurrence of an identified target behavior(s) at a set level of performance.

What the Research and Resources Say…• A reinforcement system supports students in making connections between a behavior and its consequences

(Alberto & Troutman, 2003). • Effective, criterion-specific rewards are delivered immediately; contingent; desirable and appealing to

students; planned; and realistically attainable (Martella, Nelson, & Marchand-Martella, 2003).• Rewards should be simple to implement, easy to record, inexpensive, and nondisruptive (Levin & Nolan,

2000; Smith & Rivera, 1993). • Reinforcers which are selected by students themselves are often more motivating than those selected for them

(Alberto & Troutman, 2003; Smith & Rivera, 1993).• A variety of positive reinforcers should be available over time to prevent rewards from losing their

effectiveness or motivating properties (Jones & Jones, 1998).• Several types of reinforcers can function as rewards, including social, activity/ privilege, and tangible

reinforcers (Alberto & Troutman, 2003; Emmer, Evertson, & Worsham, 2003). (See Types of Criterion- Specific Rewards Chart at the end of this STAR Sheet)

• For learning new or reinforcing difficult skills, more intensive rewards such as tangible or material rewards may be warranted. Initially, these may need to be delivered on a more frequent basis until a skill is learned or mastered (Kameenui & Darch, 1995).

Tips for Implementation…• Identify Specific Behaviors

a. Identify and list behaviors that need to be increased for the student to be successful. Begin with the behaviors likely to have the most significant impact for the student’s success in learning.

b. Describe in specific terms the behavior and criteria necessary for the reward. Make sure to address the “what,” “where,” “when,” and “how” in describing the behavior.

• Select Rewardsa. Brainstorm a list of rewards that are feasible, affordable, age appropriate, and complement your

learning environment and teaching style.




b. Check school and district policies regarding the use of any activity, material, or edible rewards. You will also need to verify any individual student needs, health or otherwise (e.g., food allergies), which may limit your use of these types of rewards.

c. Validate your reward possibilities. Use multiple means to garner input: seek student input on possible rewards; observe students during activities and free time (note types of activities, interactions, and materials they select during these times); and get input from significant others (e.g., family members, other teachers) about student preferences and interests.

d. Match rewards to behaviors. The reward must have adequate value for the student, yet must not be too easily earned.

• Implement Rewardsa. Present the reward program. Students should understand the target behaviors, expected criteria or

performances, and corresponding rewards in advance.b. Deliver rewards as planned and scheduled. Remain consistent.c. Always state the specific behavior that is being reinforced when delivering rewards. (See Specific

Praise STAR Sheet.)• Evaluate and Adjust Rewards

a. Maintain records. Institute a record keeping system where you record the delivery of your rewards (or the behaviors demonstrated). Verify whether your reward system is working.

b. Vary rewards over time. This will ensure students won’t tire of your rewards.

Keep in Mind…• Plan time in your weekly schedule for rewards. Provide time as appropriate for 1) activity and privilege

rewards, 2) selection of tangible rewards, and 3) individual student conferences to review progress and to adjust personal behavioral goals or rewards.

• Avoid compromises where a reward is presented prior to the appropriate expected behavior. This encourages students to use future manipulative interactions.

• Verify the effectiveness of potential rewards so they are indeed reinforcing behaviors for individual students. Ensure that the rewards selected are more powerful than other competing reinforcers that sustain misbehavior.

• Never use access to basic personal needs as a reward (e.g., water, meals, restroom).• Rewards can be used for the whole class or for small groups. (See Group Contingency STAR Sheet)



Resources…Alberto, P. A., & Troutman, A. C. (2003). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (6th ed.). Upper Saddle Riv-

er, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Emmer, E. T., Evertson, C. M., & Worsham, M. E. (2003). Classroom management for secondary teachers (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Jones, V. F., & Jones, L. S. (1998). Comprehensive classroom management: Creating communities of support and solving problems. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Kameenui, E. J., & Darch, C. B. (1995). Instructional classroom management: A proactive approach to be-havior management. White Plains, NY: Longman.

Levin, J., & Nolan, J. F. (2000). Principles of classroom management: A professional decision-making model (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Martella, R. C., Nelson, R. J., & Marchand-Martella, N. E. (2003). Managing disruptive behavior in the schools: A schoolwide, classroom, and individualized social learning approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Smith, D. D., & Rivera, D. M. (1993). Effective discipline (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.









• Provide students with the opportunity to interact with peer(s) of his or her choice

• Can be used with instructional or noninstructional activities

• Can support naturally occurring events in the classroom

• Can be used effectively with a wide variety of students

• Can be used with group contingencies

• Student-selected interactions can lead to problems if the paired or grouped students serve as misbehavior catalysts for one another or if social issues (e.g., gossip, dating) predominate other class activities

• Student-selected activity partner or group

• Conversational free time• Student-selected seating









Activity rewards:• Enjoyable activities that

students find motivating• Can be instructional or

noninstructionalPrivilege rewards: • Fewer commonplace

school-based activities or responsibilities that hold special value

“Escape” rewards: • Removal of an unpleasant


• Can support naturally occurring events in the school environment

• Can be used effectively with a wide variety of students

• Can support completion of less desired activities

• “Grandma’s Rule”: if a student completes a less desired activity (e.g., spelling practice) he/she may then participate in some likable activity (e.g., computer time)

• Must comply with school and district procedures

• Can be difficult to schedule• Time to use the earned

rewards must be consistently provided

• Are not always provided immediately but giving praise or social reinforcers when the behavior occurs adjusts for this shortcoming

• “Escape” rewards such as a homework pass may result in non-mastory of content

Elementary• Free time activity choice • Extra computer time• First in line for recess/ lunch/ home• Team/ line leader• Skip even numbered homework

problems• Classroom helper Secondary • Listen to music while working

(headphones)• Sports/ art equipment use• Cross-age tutor• Office aide • Homework pass









Tangible or material rewards: • Objects/ edibles that students

value and like.

• Can be easy to deliver and effective, especially with hard-to-change behaviors

• Should be paired with praise when delivered so that they can later be faded

• Teachers should gradually increase the criteria for earning a tangible reward.

• Can become costly if expensive consumable items are used

• Can cause disruption to the normal classroom environment, especially if used continuously

• Can lose its effectiveness if provided after students have tired of it

• Different students have different reward choices

• Edible rewards should be used infrequently. Use of edible rewards must take into consideration food allergies, nutritional issues, student and family preferences, and school policy

Elementary• Stickers/ removable tattoos• Pencils/ pens• Pencil grips/ erasers• Stamps/ bookmarks• Books/ posters• Clay• Recycled games in good condition• Small toys (model or mini

airplanes, finger skateboards, cars, tops, balls, puzzles)

Secondary(As relevant above) • Stationery• Appealing second-hand CDs/

cassette tapes• Sunglasses/ hats• Magazines/ comic booksEdibles• Pizza/ pizza party• Popcorn/ pretzels• Cookies/ brownies• Fruits/ vegetables• Bottled water/ sports drink

Types of Criterion-Specific Rewards



Encouraging Appropriate BehaviorChoice Making

What a STAR Sheet is…A STAR (STrategies And Resources) Sheet provides you with a description of a well-researched strategy that can help you solve the case studies in this unit.

What It Is…Choice-making is a strategy that enables students to select from a number of options. It can be used both to prevent behavior problems and to increase specific behaviors.

What the Research and Resources Say…• Giving students the opportunity to make choices in their daily routines has many benefits, including

enhanced positive interactions between teachers and students (Jolivette, Stichter & McCormick, 2002), an increase in students’ assignment completion and accuracy (Cosden, Gannon, & Haring, 1995), and elevated student task accuracy (Jolivette, Wehby, Canale, & Massey, 2001). In addition, choice-making heightens student engagement and reduces disruptive behavior (Dunlap et al., 1994; Umbreit & Blair, 1996); it also enhances student task compliance and decreases student resistance (Kauffman, Mostert, Trent, & Hallahan, 2002; Pacchiano, 2000).

• Offering choices gives students decision-making opportunities that allow them predictability (Jolivette et al., 2002), which for most students with behavioral needs comes only as a result of their misbehaviors (Van Acker, Grant & Henry, 1996).

• The choices offered and selected should maintain instructional integrity by supporting the instructional objectives for the student (Jolivette et al., 2002).

Tips for Implementation…• Identify Choice Opportunities and Possible Options

a. Find out about student learning preferences, likes, and interests. Observing students, interviewing them, and completing learning preference surveys can help you to provide effective and individualized options for students.

b. Develop a general list of options. Possible items include the following: ▪ Materials & Media (manipulatives, computer, writing implements, etc.) ▪ Seating & Grouping Options (alone, with a partner or group, work areas, etc.) ▪ Gathering Information (read, research on the internet, interviews, etc.) ▪ Demonstrating Knowledge (write, illustrate, present oral reports, etc.) ▪ Subjects/ Instruction (preferred subjects or learning tasks) ▪ Scheduling (order of activities, assignments, subjects, etc.)

• Offer Choices a. Include choices that are also conducive to your teaching style and your classroom environment.

Don’t include options you can’t live with or that will disrupt learning in the classroom.




▪ Structure the choices presented. Limit your list of options. Start with two or three options to ensure success, particularly with younger children. Don’t overwhelm the students or yourself.

▪ Present options clearly and briefly and ensure that students understand them.• Evaluate and Adjust Choice Opportunities

a. Check to see if choice-making is effective. Ask yourself: ▪ Do all students have the opportunity to make choices? ▪ Are choices offered every day? Are choices provided consistently? ▪ Do students effectively use choice-making opportunities? ▪ Does choice-making affect student participation? Accomplishment? Motivation? Behavior?

b. Adjust choice-making options and opportunities as needed.c. Remember to include variety in the types of choices or options offered to students.

Keep in Mind…• Start small. Begin a consistent choice-making program in one or two academic areas, then extend to other

areas. Select an academic area or task that is likely to have the biggest effect on the student’s success.• Some choice is better than no choice. Positive behavior can be increased by giving students a choice, even

if the options aren’t preferred (Dunlap et al., 1994). • Avoid negotiations. Students may pressure teachers to add options on the spot. Consider the suggested

options for future choice-making situations.• Be consistent and honor the choices. If you do not follow through, this strategy will become ineffective over


Resources…Cosden, M., Gannon, C., & Haring, T. G. (1995). Teacher-control versus student-control over choice of

task and reinforcement for students with severe behavior problems. Journal of Behavioral Education, 5, 11–27.

Dunlap, G., DePerczel, M., Clarke, S., Wilson, D., Wright, S., White, R., & Gomez, A. (1994). Choice making to promote adaptive behavior for students with emotional and behavioral challenges. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 505–518.

Jolivette, K., Wehby, J. H., Canale, J., & Massey, N. G. (2001). Effects of choice making opportunities on the behavior of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 26, 131–145.

Jolivette, K., Stichter, J. P., & McCormick, K. M. (2002). Making choices-Improving behavior-Engaging in learning. Teaching Exceptional Children, 34, 24–30.

Umbreit, J., & Blair, K. S. (1996). The effects of preference, choice and attention on problem behavior at school. Educational and Training in Mental Retardation, 31, 151–161.

Van Acker, R., Grant, S. H., & Henry, D. (1996). Teacher and student behavior as a function for risk for aggression. Education and Treatment of Children, 19, 316–334.



What a STAR Sheet is…A STAR (STrategies And Resources) Sheet provides you with a description of a well-researched strategy that can help you solve the case studies in this unit.

What It Is…Rules are explicit statements that outline the expectations teachers have for students to follow in order to provide a safe, secure, and effective learning environment. Rules provide common guidelines for all students and offer predictability in the learning environment, assisting students in self-regulating their behaviors. Establishing and maintaining the effective use of classroom rules is a critical proactive foundation in preventing potential behavior problems.

What the Research and Resources Say…• The most effective classrooms are those of teachers who have clear ideas of what is expected of the students

and students who have clear ideas of what the teacher expects from them (Evertson, Emmer, and Worsham, 2003). Successful teachers not only identify effective rules but also explicitly teach students how to apply these rules (Martella, Nelson, & Marchand-Martella, 2003; Rademacher, Callahan, & Pederson, Seelye, 1998).

• Powerful rules are clear, easily understood, reasonable, observable, necessary, enforceable, and positively stated (Grossman, 1995; Kerr & Nelson, 2002; Martella et al., 2003; Rademacher et al., 1998; Rhode, Jenson, & Reavis, 1992; Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995).

• For efficiency, experts recommend establishing between three and five classroom rules (Martella et al., 2003; Walker et al., 1995), with no more than eight (Rademacher et al., 1998). Rules should be broad enough to cover as many classroom instructional situations as possible (Smith & Rivera, 1993).

• Student involvement in designing classroom rules can have such benefits as promoting a sense of student ownership and community, fostering student “buy in,” and preparing students for civic responsibility and the democratic process (Malone & Tietjens, 2000; Weinstein, 2003).

• Classroom rules are more general than the specific procedures developed for routine classroom activities (Smith & Rivera, 1993; Weinstein, 2003).

Tips for Implementation…• Develop and State Rules and Consequences

a. Identify critical student expectations that are necessary for your classroom in order to promote successful learning and safety. Remember to differentiate specific activity procedures from general classroom rules.

b. Involve students, as appropriate, in generating ideas for potential rules.c. State classroom rules in explicit, clear, precise, positive, and observable terms.

Example: “Bring needed books and supplies to class.”

Nonexample 1: “Be ready to learn.”

Encouraging Appropriate BehaviorEffective Rules




Nonexample 2: “Don’t interrupt others.”

d. Identify appropriate positive consequences for observing classroom rules and logical negative or corrective consequences for rule infractions.

• Communicate and Teach Rulesa. Initiate rule discussion and instruction at the start of the school year.b. Demonstrate what each rule involves and make certain that students understand the requirements

for each rule. Outline the positive and corrective consequences that occur for rule-following and rule-breaking behaviors.

c. Obtain students’ commitment to the rules and consequences (e.g., student signature on a copy of the rules, verbal agreement).

d. Post the classroom rules in a location and in an appropriate format so that all students have visual access to the display. Additionally, share a copy of the classroom rules with your administrator and with parents.

• Monitor Rulesa. Maintain consistency in enforcing rules. Apply positive consequences and reinforcement for

appropriate use of rules. Be consistent and frequent when you start the year. Impose logical, pre-planned corrective consequences when students choose not to comply with the classroom rules.

b. Monitor and record reinforcement of rules and enforcement of corrective consequences. Records help teachers identify whether misbehavior is related to a particular time or activity and provide liability documentation.

c. Provide on-going feedback throughout the year on the use of classroom rules and re-teach or remind students about rules as needed. This is especially important after long school breaks or holidays.

Keep in Mind…• If student behavior interferes with student learning and safety in an area not addressed by your current

classroom rules, consider adding to or revising your rules to accommodate this area. If student behavior re-flects a misunderstanding of your current rules, check the rule wording, revise if needed, then state, re-teach, and reinforce the rules.

Note: Changing your current rules can send a message to students that rules are not permanent or that you are unsure about the rules. Careful initial selection and phrasing of rules is important.

ResourcesEvertson, C. M., Emmer, E. T., & Worsham, M. E. (2003). Classroom management for elementary teachers

(6th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Grossman, H. (1995). Classroom behavior management in a diverse society (2nd ed.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing.

Kerr, M. M., & Nelson, C. M. (2002). Strategies for addressing behavior problems in the classroom (4th ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill Prentice Hall.

Malone, B. G., & Tietjens, C. L. (2000). Re-examination of classroom rules: The need for clarity and specified behavior. Special Services in the School, 15, 159–170.

Martella, R. C., Nelson, R. J., & Marchand-Martella, N. E. (2003). Managing disruptive behavior in the schools: A schoolwide, classroom, and individualized social learning approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.



Rademacher, J. A., Callahan, K., & Pederson-Seelye, V. A. (1998). How do your classroom rules measure up? Guidelines for developing an effective rule management routine. Intervention in School and Clinic, 33, 284–289.

Rhode, G., Jenson, W. R., & Reavis, H. K. (1992). The tough kid book: Practical classroom management strategies. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

Smith, D. D., & Rivera, D. M. (1993). Effective discipline (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Walker, H. M., Colvin, G., & Ramsey, E. (1995). Antisocial behavior in schools: Strategies and best practic-es. Pacific Grove, CA: Brookes/ Cole.

Weinstein, C. S. (2003). Secondary classroom management: Lessons from research and practice (2nd ed.). Boston: McGraw Hill.



What a STAR Sheet is…A STAR (STrategies And Resources) Sheet provides you with a description of a well-researched strategy that can help you solve the case studies in this unit.

What It Is…Contingent instructions are specific directions given to an individual student to cease an undesired behavior and to engage in a more appropriate alternative.

Example: “Jose, put away the baseball cards and get out your homework folder.”

What the Research and Resources Say…• Reprimands are used commonly by teachers. With reprimands, students are told what behavior to “stop” as

opposed to what behavior to “start” (Mather & Goldstein, 2001). • Private, quiet reprimands are more effective than those audibly delivered in front of the whole class

(O’Leary, Kaufman, Kass, & Drabman, 1970), and brief, as opposed to lengthy, reprimands improve student compliance (Abramowitz, O’Leary, & Futtersak, 1988). Verbal reprimands are also more effective when provided in close proximity and when eye contact is used (Van Houten, Nau, MacKenzie-Keating, Sameoto, & Colavecchia, 1982).

• Contingent instructions serve as a “coupling request,” addressing both the inappropriate and desired behaviors (Connolly, Dowd, Criste, Nelson, & Tobias, 1995).

Tips for Implementation…• Decide When to Use Contingent Instructions

a. Use contingent instructions for key behaviors that interfere with successful learning. Identify behaviors related to breaking classroom rules and procedures, to disrupting the instructional activity, or to potentially harming the child or others.

b. Use contingent instructions with behavioral expectations you are certain a student understands and can perform. Avoid directions that ask a student to address more than one behavior.

• Implement Contingent Instructionsa. Be immediate, contingent, positive, and specific. Include in your instruction 1) the specific behavior

that should be terminated, and 2) the appropriate behavior.

Example: “Alice, please put away your hairbrush and take out your planner.”

Nonexample: “Alice, stop playing with your hairbrush. We talked about supplies needed to start class yesterday. I’m not sure why you don’t have your planner out, but take it out right now.”

b. Be nonjudgmental, definite, and clear. Use precise statements and avoid questions.

Example: “Levi, your hands are pushing Patrick. Please put them at your side.”

Encouraging Appropriate BehaviorContingent Instructions




Nonexample: “Don’t you want to go to recess, Levi? Follow our rule about lining-up so you can go outside like all the good students.”

c. Be private and individual. Make certain that you have the student’s attention by inserting the student’s name in your instruction.

d. Be neutral. Use a calm, polite, firm, and typical voice. Make sure your body language and voice tone are not emotional.

e. Be resolute and mean what you say. Savvy students will know whether you are a teacher who gives several opportunities before they really need to comply.

Example: “Justin, put your magazine in your backpack. You need to begin taking notes.”

Nonexample: “Justin, for the umpteenth time, get to work. Put away the magazine and begin taking notes.”

f. Reinforce. Make sure you praise and reinforce the student immediately for displaying the correct behavior.

• Evaluate and Adjust Contingent Instructions a. Regularly evaluate your use of contingent instructions by asking yourself:

▪ “Has the student stopped the nonproductive behavior and started the more appropriate task?” If not, consider if your attention (while brief and corrective) serves as a reinforcer for the misbehavior.

▪ “Have I reinforced and praised the student once the desired behavior was shown?” You should see a change in future recurrence of the appropriate behavior.

▪ “Have I delivered the contingent instruction appropriately?” If the student exhibits a more negative reaction, check the ratio of your positive to negative feedback for the student.

▪ “Am I swamped with a need for many contingent instructions?” In this case, evaluate your rules, procedures, and consistency in enforcement. Use rule reminders, re-teach, additionally reinforce, or revise some of your classroom rules and procedures as needed.

Keep in Mind…• Consider allowing a brief pause between the initial instruction to cease the inappropriate behavior and the

subsequent request for the correct behavior. You may find that the student immediately and naturally engages in the correct behavior without additional direction.

• Verbal interventions, like corrective directions, are typically used after other teacher nonverbal cues (e.g., gestures, facial expressions, proximity control) have been tried to redirect the misbehavior (Levin & Nolan, 2000; Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995; Weinstein, 2003).

• If confrontation occurs, avoid arguments and resist the temptation to have the last word (Kerr & Nelson, 2002). You are a primary model for appropriate behavior in your classroom. Set the tone by trying another type of consequence or strategy.

Resources…Abramowitz, A. J., O’Leary, S. G., & Futtersak, M. W. (1988). The relative impact of long and short

reprimands on children’s off-task behavior in the classroom. Behavior Therapy, 19, 243–247.

Connolly, T., Dowd, T., Criste, A., Nelson, C., & Tobias, L. (1995). The well-managed classroom: Promoting student success through social skills instruction. Boys Town, NE: The Boy’s Town Press.



Kerr, N. M., & Nelson, C. M. (2002). Strategies for addressing behavior problems in the classroom (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.

Levin, J., & Nolan, J. F. (2000). Principles of classroom management: A professional decision-making model (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Mather, N., & Goldstein, S. (2001). Learning disabilities and challenging behaviors: A guide to intervention and classroom management. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

O’Leary, K. D., Kaufman, K. F., Kass, R. E., & Drabman, R. S. (1970). The effects of loud and soft reprimands on the behavior of disruptive students. Exceptional Children, 37, 145–155.

Van Houten, R., Nau, P. A., MacKenzie-Keating, S. E., Sameoto, D., & Colavecchia, B. (1982). An analysis of some variables influencing the effectiveness of reprimands. Journal of Applied and Behavioral Analy-sis, 15, 65–83.

Walker, H. M., Colvin, G., & Ramsey, E. (1995). Antisocial behavior in schools: Strategies and best practic-es. Pacific Grove, CA: Brookes/ Cole.

Weinstein, C. S. (2003). Secondary classroom management: Lessons from research and practice (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.



What a STAR Sheet is…A STAR (STrategies And Resources) Sheet provides you with a description of a well-researched strategy that can help you solve the case studies in this unit.

What It Is… A group contingency is a group reinforcement technique that capitalizes on peer influence by setting a group goal or implementing a group consequence for behavior. The purpose of this strategy is to prevent behavioral problems, increase appropriate behaviors, and decrease incorrect behaviors, depending on how the contingency is engineered.

Encouraging Appropriate BehaviorGroup Contingency

Types of Group ContingenciesType Definition Example

✔ Dependent

One individual (or a small group) earns a privilege or reward for peers by behaving appropriately.

Susan earns five minutes of free time for the entire class because she did not argue with her partner during reading.

✔ Independent Individuals earn reinforcement when they achieve a goal established for the group. The same contingency applies to each student. However, one student’s behavior does not impact the group outcome.

Every student who achieves 90percent or better on the Thursday spelling test gets a homework pass.

✔ Interdependent The class, or a group within the class, earns a special reward when every individual in the identified group meets an established goal.

When the entire class is on time and seated at the beginning of history class for one week, every class member earns 10 bonus points on the weekly test.

(Smith & Rivera, 1993)




What the Research and Resources Say…• Group contingencies have been shown to be effective in influencing the behavior of small and large groups

at various ages (Smith & Rivera, 1993).• Each type of group contingency has possibilities and pitfalls (Kauffman, Mostert, Trent, & Hallahan, 2002):

a. Dependent group contingency is helpful for a student with low social status because the student can earn rewards for the group. However, the student’s standing will worsen if she or he doesn’t earn the reward; therefore, ensure that the student is capable of the behavior.

b. Independent group contingency has little risk of peer pressure. However, it also has minimal peer momentum, modeling, or camaraderie to support the target behavior.

c. Interdependent group contingency can apply positive peer influence. However, students may complain about, sabotage, or harass others if they believe there is unjust accountability for the behavior of others or uneven composition of groups in skills, abilities, etc.

• Interdependent and dependent contingencies are the most effective in reducing inappropriate behaviors (Gresham & Gresham, 1982).

Tips for Implementation…• Identify the Target Behavior & Contingency Type

a. Select the behavior that needs to be changed.b. Select the appropriate and most advantageous contingency for the behavior.

▪ For changing a single behavior of one child, consider the dependent group contingency. ▪ For changing the behavior of a group, select the independent or interdependent group

contingency.c. Establish a reasonable performance standard for the attainment of the reward.

• Prepare the Plana. Identify the reward. Solicit student input in choosing an appropriate reinforcer.b. Schedule when students will receive the reward. c. Communicate your plan with the class or group. Seek student commitment.

• Implement the Plana. Begin using the contingency plan, remaining consistent with your expectations and consequences.

• Evaluate and Adjust the Plana. Collect data on the effectiveness of the plan.b. Determine how or if you will continue to use the plan. Ask yourself:

▪ “Should I change the behavior(s) addressed?” Decide if your plan has been successful in improving the behavior and consider other behaviors that need to be targeted.

▪ “Should I adjust or change the contingency?” Find out which students were successful in achieving your standards. If some were not successful, examine your plan carefully and modify it.

Keep in Mind…• Group contingency requires more planning and intervention than other techniques.• Make certain that students can truly earn additional privileges or rewards. Teachers should add a new

reward (or increase a current reward) and not use an established reinforcer (e.g., scheduled break, recess) as part of the contingency plan.

• Many professionals caution against the practice of taking away rewards based on a dependent or interdependent contingency. Doing so can establish a negative atmosphere in the classroom and should be avoided.



Research-Based Programs• The Good Behavior Game (Barrish, Saunders, & Wolf, 1969) • The Good Student Game (Babyak, Luze, & Kamps, 2000) • Tootling (Skinner, Cashwell, & Skinner, 2000)

Resources…Babyak, A. E., Luze, G. J., & Kamps, D. M. (2000). The Good Student Game: Behavior management for

diverse classrooms. Intervention in School and Clinic, 35, 216–223.

Barrish, H. H., Saunders, M., & Wolf, M. M. (1968). Good behavior game: Effects of individual contingencies for group consequences on disruptive behavior in a classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 119–124.

Gresham, F. M., & Gresham, G. N. (1982). Interdependent, dependent, and independent group contingencies for controlling disruptive behavior. The Journal of Special Education, 16, 101–110.

Kauffman, J. M., Mostert, M, P., Trent, S. C., & Hallahan, D. P. (2002). Managing classroom behavior: A reflective case-based approach (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Smith, D., & Rivera, D. M. (1993). Effective discipline (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Skinner, C. H., Cashwell, T. H., & Skinner, A. L. (2000). Increasing tootling: The effects of a peer-monitored group contingency program on students’ reports of peers’ prosocial behaviors. Psychology in the Schools, 37, 263–270.


Encouraging Appropriate Behavior - Vanderbilt … Appropriate Behavior Level C • Case 1 Background Student: Zach; Patrick Age: 10.10; 11.4 Grade: 5th grade, 2nd semester; 5th grade, - [PDF Document] (2024)


How to engage 5th grade students? ›

10 Rules of Engagement
  1. Start Class with a Mind Warm-Up. ...
  2. Use Movement to Get Kids Focused. ...
  3. Teach Students How to Collaborate Before Expecting Success. ...
  4. Use Quickwrites When You Want Quiet Time and Student Reflection. ...
  5. Run a Tight Ship When Giving Instructions. ...
  6. Use a Fairness Cup to Keep Students Thinking.

How can guidelines and rules in a classroom use positive behavior supports instead of punishment while teaching students to interact in socially responsible ways? ›

Socially responsible ways to teach guidelines and rules in a classroom can use positive behavior supports instead of punishment by encouraging students to be part of the community and help develop guidelines and rules. This promotes ownership, assists in responsibility, and holds students accountable for their actions.

What is an example of a contingent instruction? ›

When the teacher must actively intervene to interrupt misbehavior, the instructor can use contingent instructions. In this verbal strategy, the teacher first delivers a 'STOP' statement (e.g., "Jason, stop talking."). The teacher then delivers a "START" statement (e.g., "Continue working on your assignment.").

How do I teach my 5 year old discipline? ›

The good news for every parent is it works and here's how you can start putting it into practice:
  1. Plan 1-on-1 time. ...
  2. Praise the positives. ...
  3. Set clear expectations. ...
  4. Distract creatively. ...
  5. Use calm consequences. ...
  6. Pause. ...
  7. Step back. ...
  8. Praise yourself.

What do 5th graders struggle with? ›

Both academic expectations and social-emotional development are tilting more and more toward independence. Fifth-graders can: Show uncertainty about puberty and changes to their bodies. Be insecure or have mood swings and struggle with self-esteem.

What are cognitive skills for 5th graders? ›

In 5th grade, children are transitioning from concrete to abstract thinking. They are able to think more critically, solve complex problems, and engage in logical reasoning. This cognitive development allows them to better understand and navigate social situations, as well as make responsible decisions.

What is developmentally appropriate for 5th graders? ›

Some common developmental milestones for fifth graders may include: Increased physical coordination and ability to participate in team sports or complex physical activities. Improved attention span, time-management skills, and ability to complete multiple tasks. Ability to more easily see other points of view.

What are four simple classroom rules? ›

A List of 30 Basic Classroom Rules
  • Be kind.
  • Turn up to class on time.
  • Listen to your teacher.
  • Always try your best.
  • Be respectful to the school grounds.
  • Put your hand up if you'd like to speak.
  • Make others happy.
  • Concentrate.

How do you punish students positively? ›

Positive punishment generally refers to adding a stimulus to decrease an unwanted behavior. For example, if your child does poorly on a test, you might require them to spend additional time studying or if a child throws a tantrum over doing chores or neglects them entirely, you might assign them additional tasks.

What are the 7 classroom rules? ›

Examples of classroom rules:
  • Treat others with respect at all times.
  • Listen to the teacher when s/he speaks.
  • Ask for help when you need it.
  • Be prepared every day with required items.
  • Respect other people's property.
  • Listen and follow directions.
  • Raise your hand before speaking or leaving your seat.
Aug 25, 2022

What is school contingency? ›

Contingencies in the classroom describe if-then relationships between student behaviors and classroom events. A group contingency (GC) is a specific type of contingency that uses group reinforcement to capitalizes on peer influence.

What is contingency responding? ›

Contingent Responding involves back- and-forth conversations, in which the teacher follows the child's lead by responding to the child's comment or question in a way that keeps the conversation going. This type of responding... Builds on and extends the child's. action, comment, or question.

What is a contingency plan for teachers? ›

Contingency Planning: Creating Content and Assignments When Classes are Cancelled | Teaching Innovation and Pedagogical Support.

How do you get 5th graders to respect you? ›

What you can do
  1. Demonstrate respectful behavior. ...
  2. Teach polite responses. ...
  3. Avoid overreacting. ...
  4. Expect disagreements. ...
  5. Set limits. ...
  6. Talk it over later. ...
  7. Praise respectful behavior. .

How do you discipline bad grades? ›

Here are some tips from pediatrician Courtney Nolan, DO:
  1. Address the importance of grades early. ...
  2. Separate the child from the grade. ...
  3. Approach the subject with concern, not anger. ...
  4. Ask questions. ...
  5. Talk to the teacher. ...
  6. Know that rewards and punishment don't work if you want your child to love learning. ...
  7. Beware of pressure.
Oct 11, 2020

How to get 5th graders to stop talking? ›

Let's dive in!
  1. Start lessons with a focused but free discussion. ...
  2. Give directions from the same spot in the room each time. ...
  3. Refuse to talk over students. ...
  4. Use calm-down strategies before starting lessons. ...
  5. Keep your lessons short. ...
  6. Give frequent breaks. ...
  7. Explicitly teach and have reminders for talking expectations.

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